Saturday, 27 June 2015


Circumstances for the Creation of Pakistan
     Irreconcilable differences eventually lead to inevitable separation. In his speech "Pakistan and the Modern World" delivered at Kansas University America in 1950, Quaid-e-Millat, Liaquat Ali Khan brought to light the circumstances which led to the creation of Pakistan. These circumstances were, in fact, the deep-rooted differences between the Muslims and the Hindus. The Muslims and the Hindus were poles apart demographically, religiously, socially and economically. Thus Hindu-Muslim unity and amity were impossible in the sub-continent.
     Demographically, the Muslims were a minority as compared with the Hindus. Religiously, the Muslims were monotheists while the Hindus were polytheists. Socially, the Muslims believed in the equality of all men whereas the Hindus adhered to a caste system. Economically, the Muslims advocated private ownership and the Hindus attached weight to the concentration of wealth. Thus the Muslims and the Hindus were different in everything and must need different territories. Their co-existence was incongruous. Moreover, the sub-continent was vast enough for two large countries. 
    The demand of the Muslims for divorce was very genuine and reasonable as it was in the interest of both the Muslims and the Hindus. It was also in the interest of the world peace. The bogus peace enforced by the British would have ended after the departure of the British from the sub-continent. In short, a separate homeland was inevitable for the Muslims to live peacefully and according to their own political, religious, social and economical life style. 
There is no place like home
All must have a home of their own
                                      (J.H. Payne)
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Saturday, 7 March 2015


"Luka, tell them ---------- oats all to-day".
(i) Play: The Bear
(ii) Playwright: Anton Chekhov
(i) Occurrence: Last line of the play
(ii) Content: Popova, a dowager, is visited by Smirnov, a creditor of her late husband. She is not in a position to repay the loan. The situation advances in such a manner that they are ready to fight with pistols. But later, they are engaged in love-making. 
     This sentence is spoken by the heroine of the play, Popova. She utters it when Luka and other servants come to beat Smirnov with different tools. It shows that she has begun to like Smirnov and despise Mihailovitvh, her late husband. When Popova loved her late husband, she also loved his favourites. Thus Toby was not only the favourite horse of Mihailovitch but also of Popova. In the beginning of the play she says to Luka, "Tell them to give him(Toby) an extra feed of oats". But now Popova has become very cruel to Toby. "Extra feed of oats" has reduced to "no feed of oats". It means her love for Mihailovitch has evaporated and the cloud of vapours is raining on Smirnov. Thus she proves;
Frailty, thy name is woman!
                                          (William Shakespeare)
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Thursday, 12 February 2015


And yet those voices --------- would kill him!
(i) Poem: Snake
(ii) Poet: David Herbert Lawrence
(i) Occurrence: Lines 36-37/75
(ii) Content: In this poem the poet describes his encounter with a snake that comes to drink water at his water-trough. He is much impressed by its physical beauty. However, the voices of his education compel him to attack it. After his departure, he feels sorry for his mean action. 
     In these lines the poet expresses the conflict in his mind about how to treat the snake which has come to his water-trough to quench its thirst. The poet has liked the presence of this beautiful snake in his house. However, on the other hand, he is again hearing the inner voices of his conscience and social education. These voices are alarming him that snake is a dangerous and poisonous reptile. It is a greater enemy of man. Thus the rational voices are urging him that if he is not a coward or pavid and if he does not feel afraid of it, he must kill the venomous snake to save himself and others from its bite. 
And ' mid this tumult Kubla heard from far
Ancestral voices prophesying war!
                                                                 (S.T. Coleridge) 
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Wednesday, 4 February 2015


Walked through a wood ------- at their ease.
(i) Poem: Say This City Has Ten Million Souls
(ii) Poet: Wyston Hughes Auden
(i) Occurrence: Lines 37-38/48
(ii) Content: In this poem the poet describes the miserable condition of German Jews. To get rid of Hitler's cruelties in Germany, the Jews fled to America to take refuge. But the immigrants had to face estrangement, alienation and maltreatment in America.  
     In these lines the poet regrets that human life has fallen beneath the animal level and the major reason is the presence of politicians among humans. When the authorities of New York did not give any shelter to the immigrant Jews, they went to a small forest. There they happened to observe the birds in the trees. These birds were chirping and singing without any social taboos or troubles. In other words, they were enjoying the freedom and liberty in their lives. The immigrants perceived that the cause of their happiness and freedom was the absence of politicians among birds. Alas! politicians among humans have divided mankind into groups, races, nations and countries. 

Wednesday, 28 January 2015


And on her dulcimer ---------- Mount Abora
(i) Poem: Kubla Khan
(ii) Poet: Samuel Taylor Coleridge
(i) Occurrence: Lines 40-41/54
(ii) Content: In this poem the poet gives an imaginagy description of a wanderland, Xanadu. It has a pleasure-doom, a sacred river, ancient forests, a wailing woman, a mighty mountain, caves of ice and a damsel singing of mount Abora. 
     In these lines the poet depicts a very romantic scence at Kubla Khan's wanderland, Xanadu. The poet dreamt that a young black woman was standing in this wanderland. She was, in fact, an Abyssinian maid. In her hands, she was holding two light-weight hammers. With these hammers she was palying a musical instrument called dulcimer. The music of this zither was creating a pleasing effect. Moreover, she was singing a melodious song in praise of sacred mountain called Abora. Thus the presence of the young woman, the playing of the musical instrument and the singing of the praise song all add to the beauty and charms of this land.
The hills are alive with the sound of music
With the songs they have sung
                                                      (Oscar Hammertein II)
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Friday, 23 January 2015


In the morning ---------- beneath the tree.
(i) Poem: A Poison Tree
(ii) Poet: William Blake
(i) Occurrence: Lines 15-16/16
(ii) Content: In this poem the poet describes the development and effects of anger. Once the poet becomes angry with his foe and bottles up his wrath. This hatred becomes a tree which bears a poisonous apple. His enemy eats this apple and dies there and then.
     In these lines the poet says that triumph always gives happiness and satisfaction. Death is an occasion for grief but for the poet it turns out to be an occasion for joy because his hatred has won at the cost of his enemy's death. The poet had, in fact, planted a tree of hatred for his enemy. This tree bore a bright but poisonous apple. His enemy was tempted to eat it like Eve was tempted to eat the apple in Paradise. At last his enemy ate it stealthily at night and died there and then. When the poet went to his garden in the morning, his joy knew no bounds because his enemy was no more than a rigor mortis, lying on the ground beneath the tree.

Sunday, 18 January 2015


A legacy of benefits ---------- until they die.
(i) Poem: Departure and Arrival
(ii) Poet: Thomas Stearns Eliot
(i) Occurrence: Lines 25-27/36
(ii) Content: In this poem the poet expressed an abiding idealism and optimism. He asks the people to greet the new century which is coming with new gifts and capabilities. He advises them to work harder than their ancestors to make the world a better place for the coming generations.
    In these lines the poet says that actions and deeds of people are immortal. These do not die with the death of people. These survive with the coming generations as a legacy. History is replete with the people who performed great actions and deeds. These are the writers, scientists and teachers etc who worked hard all their lives for the welfare and good of their generation and the coming ones. The poet wishes that "we", i.e., the inhabitants of the twentieth century should also labour hard continuously till our death so that the coming generations may remember us a "heroes" for our sublime actions and deeds.